Scaling-up bibliography

The ExpandNet bibliography includes publications, websites, grey literature, and conference reports that either directly address scaling up or provide valuable insights on scaling up. Included are materials from a range of global health and development technical areas as well as the various sciences relevant to scale up. The references below are useful, but not exhaustive, and not the result of a systematic search process. If you would like us to include an additional reference, please contact us.

The references in the bibliography are grouped into the categories below, many of which are linked to the original source. Use the category links to navigate easily through the bibliography.

Scaling up theories, frameworks and concepts

Adamou B.  2013. “Guide for monitoring scale-up of health practices and interventions,” MEASURE Evaluation PRH, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

African Youth Alliance. 2000. Scaling-Up.

Baker E. 2010. “Taking programs to scale: a phased approach to expanding proven interventions.” J Public Health Management Practice, 2010, 16(3), 264–269

Bangser M. 2014. "A Funder's Guide to Using Evidence of Program Effectiveness in Scale-up Decisions." Social Impact Exchange at Growth Philanthropy Network. MDRC, New York.

Barker P, Reid A and Schall MW. 2016. "A framework for scaling up health interventions: lessons from large-scale improvement initiatives in Africa." Implementation Science, 11:12

Benevides R, Chau K, Ousseini A, Innocent I, and Simmons R. 2019. "Engaging Students to Improve Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Report of the University Leadership for Change Initiative in Niger." African Journal for Reproductive Health; 23[1]:55-64

Bradach J. 2004. “Going to Scale: The Challenge of Replicating Social Programs”. Stanford Social Innovation Review, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

Bradley EH, Curry L, Pérez-Escamilla R et al. 2011. “Dissemination, diffusion and scale up of family health innovations in low-income countries” – Abridged. Yale Global Health Leadership Institute, New Haven.

Bradley EH, Curry LA, Taylor LA et al.  2012. “A model for scale up of family health innovations in low-income and middle-income settings: A mixed methods study,” BMJ Open, Aug 24;2(4).

CARE. 2019. "Scale X Design Accelerator" website.

Carter B, Joshi A, & Remme M. 2018. "Scaling Up Inclusive Approaches for Marginalised and Vulnerable People" K4D Emerging Issues Report. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.

Clark CH, Massarsky CW, Raben TS, and Worsham E. 2012. “Scaling Social Impact: A Literature Toolkit for Funders.” Growth Philanthropy Network, Duke University.

Cooley L and R. Kohl. 2005. “Scaling Up—From Vision to Large-scale Change: A Management Framework for Practitioners” Washington, D.C.: Management Systems International.

Cooley L, R. Ved.  2012. “Scaling up – from vision to large-scale change: a management framework for practitioners, second edition,” Management Systems International (MSI), Washington DC.

Cooley L, Ved R, Fehlenberg K. 2012. “Scaling up—from vision to large scale change: Tools and techniques for practitioners,” Management Systems International (MSI), Washington DC.

Dearing JW, and Cox JG. 2018. "Diffusion Of Innovations Theory, Principles, And Practice." Health Affairs. 37:2

Dickson KE, Simen-Kapeu A, Kinney MV, Et al.  2014. “Health–systems bottlenecks and strategies to accelerate scale-up in countries.” Lancet, 384(9941) 438-454.

Duflo E. 2004. “Scaling Up and Evaluation”. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank.

Evans SH and Clark P. 2011. “Disseminating orphan innovations”. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Winter 2011. Leland Stanford Junior University.
ExpandNet website/tools. 2005-2010. “Our tools” available at

Fajans P, Simmons R, and Ghiron L. 2006. “Helping public sector health systems innovate: the strategic approach to strengthening reproductive health policies and programs,” American Journal of Public Health, 96:435-440.

Fixsen A. 2013. “Monitoring and Evaluating Scaling up of health system Interventions: Theory and Practice.” Draft manuscript.

Franco LM, Marquez L. 2011.  “Effectiveness of collaborative improvement: evidence from 27 applications in 12 less developed and middle income countries”.  British Medical Journal Quality Safety.   20-658-665

Fraser SW. 2007. “Undressing the Elephant: Why the spread of good practice isn’t working in healthcare; presenting symptoms and suggested treatment”. Lulu Press.

Frost LJ, Reich M. 2008. “Access: How do good health technologies get to poor people in poor countries?” Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. FutureGenerations. The Future Generations Model for Community Change, and the Future Generations website Going to Scale.

Ganju E, Heyman C. 2018. “Scaling Global Change: A Social Entrepreneur’s Guide to Surviving the Start-up Phase and Driving Impact.” Wiley.

Gargani J and McLean R. 2017. "Scaling Science." Features. Stanford Social Innovation Review.

Gaye PA, Nelson D. 2009. “Effective scale-up: Avoiding the same old traps.” Human Resources for Health, 7:2.

Gericke CA, Kurowski C, Ranson MK et al.  2003. “Feasibility of scaling-up interventions: The role of intervention design,” Berlin University of Technology, Germany, and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, U.K.

Gericke CA, Kurowski C, Ranson MK, and Mills A. 2005. “Intervention Complexity: A Conceptual Framework to Inform Priority-setting in Health.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83, 285-293.

Ghiron L, Shilingi L, and Kabiswa C. 2014. “Beginning with sustainable scale up in mind: initial results from a population, health and environment project in East Africa”. RH Health Matters, 2(432)8492

Gilson l, Schneider H. 2010. “Commentary: Managing scaling up: what are the key issues?” Health Policy and Planning 25(2):97-98.

Gladwell, M. 2000. "The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference." Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Glaser, E.M. 1983. “Putting Knowledge to Use: Facilitating the Diffusion of Knowledge and the Implementation of Planned Change”. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Gonsalves J. 2000.”Going to scale: can we bring more benefits to more people more quickly? Workshop highlights presented by the CGIAR-NGO Committee and The Global Forum for Agricultural Research with BMZ (German Ministry of Development Corporation), MISEREOR (German Catholic Church Development Agency), Rockefeller Foundation, IRRI (International Rice Research Institute), and IIRR (International Institute of Rural Reconstruction). 10-14 April, IIRR , Philippines.

Gray J. 2010. “Global health experts seek to transform programs through implementation science”. Fogarty International Center. Global Health Matters Newsletter, Volume 9, Issue 2.

Hanson K, Ranson MK, Oliviera-Cruz V et al. 2003. “Expanding access to priority health interventions: a framework for understanding the constraints to scaling-up,” Journal of International Development, 15:1–14.

Hardee K, Ashford L, Rottach E et al. 2012.“The policy dimensions of scaling up health initiatives.” Health Policy Project,  Futures Group, Washington, DC.

Hardee K. 2013. “Approach for addressing and measuring policy development and implementation in the scale-up of family planning and maternal, neonatal, and child health programs,” Futures Group, Health Policy Project, Washington, DC.

Hartmann A, and Linn J. 2008. “Scaling up: A framework and lessons for development effectiveness from literature and practice” Wolfensohn Center for Development, Working Paper 5. The Brookings Institution, Washington.

Hartmann A, and Linn J. 2008. “Scaling up through aid – The real challenge“. Wolfensohn Center for Development Policy Brief. The Brookings Institution, Washington.

Havelock RG. 1971. “Planning for Innovation through Dissemination and Utilization of Knowledge”. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge, Institute for Social Research.

Hodgins S and Quissel K. 2016. "Scale-up as if Impact Mattered: Learning and Adaptation as the Essential (often Missing) Ingredient." SNL Working Paper. 

Igras S, Sinai I, Mukabatsinda M. 2014. “Systems approach to monitoring and evaluation guides scale up of the Standard Days Method of family planning in Rwanda.”Global Health Science and Practice 2 (2)234-244.

Implementation Science. An open access, peer-reviewed online journal, since 2006.

Implementing Best Practices Consortium. 2013. “Guide to fostering change to scale up effective health services: A K4H Toolkit”. Geneva, Washington DC.

Indig D, Lee K, Grunseit A, Milat A, & Bauman A. 2017. "Pathways for scaling up public health interventions." BMC Public Health, 18, 68.

Institute for Reproductive Health at Georgetown University. 2019. "Considerations for Scaling Up Norms-Shifting Interventions for Adolescent and Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health" website.

Jacobs F, Ubels J, and Woltering L. 2018. "The Scaling Scan- A practical tool to determine the strengths and weaknesses of your scaling ambition." Published by the PPPlab and CIMMYT.

Janowitz B, Bratt J, Homan R, Foreit J. 2007. “How Much Will It Cost to Scale Up a Reproductive Health Pilot Project?” Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program Brief No. 8. Population Council, Washington DC.

Johns B, and T. TanTorres. 2005. “Costs of scaling up health interventions: a systematic review”. Health Policy and Planning. 20: 1-13.

Johns B, and Baltussen R. 2004. “Accounting for the Cost of Scaling-Up Health Interventions.” Health Economics”. Vol. 13, pp. 1117-1124.

Jonasova M and Cooke S. 2012. "Thinking systematically about scaling up: developing guidance for scaling up World Bank-supported agriculture and rural development operations."

Jowell R. 2003. “Trying it out – the role of pilots in policy-making: Report of a review of government pilots.” Edinburgh, Scotland: National Centre for Social Research.

Keyonzo N, Nyachae P, Kagwe P, et al. 2015. “From Project to Program: Tupange’s Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya”. Reproductive Health Matters. 23(45):103-113.

Knippenberg R, Lawn JE, Darmstadt GL et al.  2005. “Systematic scaling up of neonatal care in countries,” Lancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team, 365(9464): 1087-1098.

MacLean R and Garani J. 2019. "Scaling Impact: Innovation for the Public Good."

Madon T, Hofman KJ, Kupfer L, Glass RI. 2007. Public Health: Implementation Science. Science. 318(5857):1728-1729.

Mattina D. 2006. “Money Isn’t Everything: The Challenge of Scaling Up Aid to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals in Ethiopia”. IMF Working Paper, Vol. , pp. 1-34.

Mangham LJ, Hanson K. 2010. “Scaling up in international health: what are the key issues?” Health Policy and Planning, 25(2):85-96.

Massoud MR, Donohue KL, McCannon CJ. 2010.  “Options for large-scale spread of simple, high-impact interventions. Technical report”. USAID Health Care Improvement Project. Bethesda, Maryland.

Massoud MR, Nielsen GA, Nolan K et al. 2006. “A framework for spread: From local improvements to system-wide change.” IHI Innovation Series white paper. Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Cambridge, MA.

McCannon CJ, Berwick DM, Massoud, MR. 2007. “The Science of Large-Scale Change in Global Health” JAMA, 298:1937-1939.

McCannon C J, Schall MW, Perla RJ. 2008. “Planning for scale: A guide for designing large-scale improvement initiatives.” IHI Innovation Series white paper.  Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Milat AJ, Bauman A, Redman S. 2015. “Narrative review of models and success factors for scaling up public health interventions.” Implementation Science, 10(1), 1.

Milat AJ, Newson R, King L, Rissel C, Wolfenden L, Bauman A, et al. "A guide to scaling up population health interventions." Public Health Res Pract. 2016;26(1):e2611604.

Mills A, Hanson K, eds. 2003. “Expanding Access to Health Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Constraints and Opportunities for Scaling-Up.” Special issue, Journal of International Development, Volume 15 Issue 1 , Pages 1 – 131.

Nyonator FK, Awoonor-Williams JK, Phillips JF et al.  2005. “The Ghana community-based health planning and services initiative for scaling up service delivery innovation.” Health Policy and Planning, 20(1):25-34.

Omimo A, Taranta D, Ghiron L, et al. 2018. “Applying ExpandNet’s Systematic Approach to Scaling Up in an Integrated Population, Health and Environment Project in East Africa” Social Sciences, 7(1), 8; doi:10.3390/socsci7010008

Paina L, Peters DH. 2011. “Understanding pathways for scaling up health services through the lens of complex adaptive systems,” Health Policy and Planning, 1-9, doi: 10.1093/heapol/czr054.

Pallas SW, Minhas D, Perez-Escamilla R et al. 2013. “Community health workers in low- and middle-income countries: What do we know about scaling up and sustainability?” American Journal of Public Health:103:e74-82.

Partners for Health Reform Plus. 2004. “The role of pilot programs: Approaches to health systems strengthening” Bethesda, MD. PHRPlus, Abt Associates.

Peters DH, El-Saharty S, Siadat B, et al, Eds. 2009. “Improving Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries: From Evidence to Action”. World Bank, Washington DC.

Pyle DF. 1980. “From pilot project to operational program in India: The problems of transition.” In Politics and Policy Implementation in the Third World. Ed. Merilee Serrill Grindle. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Ramalingam B, Wild L, and Buffardi AL. 2019. "Making adaptive rigor work: Principles and practices for strengthening monitoring, evaluation and learning for adaptive management." Briefing Paper. Overseas Development Institute (ODI). London.

Results for Development. Undated. "International Development Innovation Alliance (IDIA)" website. 

Robb-McCord J, Voet W. 2003. “Scaling up practices, tools, and approaches in the maternal and neonatal health program” Baltimore: JHPIEGO Corp.

Rogers EM. 1995. Diffusion of Innovations. Fourth Edition. New York: Free Press.

Schouten LMT, Hulscher MEJL, Everdingen JJE, Et al. 2008. “Evidence for the impact of quality improvement collaboratives: systematic review”.  British Medical Journal. 336:1491-1499

Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, Eds. 2007. “Scaling up Health Service Delivery: From Pilot Innovations to Policies and Programmes”. World Health Organization.

Simmons R, Shiffman J.  2007. “Scaling-up reproductive health service innovations: a framework for action”. In: Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, eds. Scaling up health service delivery: from pilot innovations to policies and programmes. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Story WT, LeBan K, Altobelli LC, Gebrian B, Hossain J, Lewis J. et al. 2017. "Institutionalizing community-focused maternal, newborn, and child health strategies to strengthen health systems: A new framework for the Sustainable Development Goal era." Globalization and Health. (2017) 13:37.

Subramanian S, Naimoli J, Matsubayashi T et al. 2011. “Do we have the right models for scaling up health services to achieve the Millennium Development Goals?” BMC Health Services Research, 11:336.

Terris-Prestholt F, Kumaranayake L, Obasi AIN et al. 2006. “From trial intervention to scale-up: costs of an adolescent sexual health program in Mwanza, Tanzania,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33 (10 SUPPL): S133-S139.

USAID Health Care Improvement Project. 2008. "The Improvement Collaborative: An Approach to Rapidly Improve Health Care and Scale Up Quality Services." Published by the USAID Health Care Improvement Project. Bethesda, MD: University Research Co., LLC (URC).

USAID. 2015. "Idea to Impact: A Guide to Introduction and Scale of Global Health Innovations."website.

USAID Maternal Child Health Survival Program. 2018. "Scale-up for Success" website.

Uvin P. 1995. “Fighting hunger at the grassroots: Paths to scaling up.” World Development: 23(6): 927-940.

Uvin P. 1999. “Scaling up, scaling down: NGO paths to overcoming hunger.” In Scaling Up, Scaling Down – Overcoming Malnutrition in Developing Countries. Ed. Thomas J. Marchione. Australia: Gordon and Breach.

Uvin P, Jain PS, & Brown LD. 2000. “Think Large and Act Small: Towards a New Paradigm for NGO Scaling Up.” World Development, 28, 1409-1419.

Uvin P, Miller D. 1994. “Scaling up: Thinking through the issues.” The World Hunger Program, Watson Institute of International Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI.

Vicki B, Huong T, Miranda B, Rachel L, Marj M. 2020. "A narrative review of economic constructs in commonly used implementation and scale-up theories, frameworks and models." Health Research Policy Systems 2020; 18: 115.

Victora C, Hanson K, et al. (2004). “Achieving universal coverage with health interventions.” The Lancet 364(9444): 1541-1548.

Wils F. 1995. “Scaling-up, mainstreaming and accountability: The challenge for NGOs.” In Non-Governmental Organisations: Performance and Accountability beyond the Magic Bullet. Eds. Michael Edwards and David Hulme. London, England: Earthscan.

World Health Organization. 2016. "Scaling up projects and initiatives for better health: from concepts to practice." Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.

Yamey G. 2011. “Scaling up global health interventions: A proposed framework for success.” PLoS Med 8:e1001049

Implementation science

Bennett S, Mahmood SS, Edward A, Tetui M, Ekirapa-Kiracho E. 2017. "Strengthening scaling up through learning from implementation: comparing experiences from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Uganda." Health Res Policy Syst. 2017;15(2):108.

Brownson RC, Colditz GA, Proctor EK. 2012. "Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health: Translating Science to Practice". Oxford University Press.

Durlak, Joseph A, and DuPre EP. 2008. “Implementation Matters: A Review of Research on the Influence of Implementation on Program Outcomes and the Factors Affecting Implementation.”American Journal of Community Psychology 41: 327-350.

Evidence Project. 2016. "Implementation Science Approaches to Family Planning and Reproductive Health: Experiential Learning and Sharing for Implementers, Policy-makers, Researchers, and Advocates." Meeting Report. Washington D.C., Population Council.

Fixsen D, Naoom SF, Blase KA, et al. 2005. "Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature". University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication #231).

George A, Menotti EP, Rivera D et al. 2011. “Community case management in Nicaragua: Lessons in fostering adoption and expanding implementation,” Health Policy and Planning, 26: 327-337.

Kilbourne AM, Neumann MS, Pincus HA, Bauer MS, & Stall R. 2007. “Implementing evidence-based interventions in health care: application of the replicating effective programs framework.”Implementation Science, 2(1), 42.

Meyers DC, Durlak JA, & Wandersman A. 2012. "The quality implementation framework: A synthesis of critical steps in the implementation process." American Journal of Community Psychology.

NIH Fogarty International Center. "Overcoming Barriers to Implementation in Global Health: A Toolkit for Engaging Diverse Stakeholders in Implementation Science." National Institutes of Health, Maryland.

Norton WE, McCannon CJ, Schall MW et al. 2012. “A stakeholder-driven agenda for advancing the science and practice of scale-up and spread in health,” Implementation Science, 7:118.

Peters DH, Adam T, Alonge O et al. 2013. “Implementation research: what it is and how to do it,” BMJ, 347:f6753.

Peters DH, Tran NT, Adam T. 2013. “Implementation research in health: a practical guide,” Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, World Health Organization, Geneva.

Research utilization

Bero LA, Grill RI, Grimshaw JW, Harvey E, Oxman AD, and Thomson MA. 1998.“Closing the gap between research and practice: An overview of systematic reviews of interventions to promote the implementation of research findings.” British Medical Journal 317(7156): 465-468.

Billings DL, Crane BB, Benson J et al. 2007. “Scaling-up a public health innovation: A comparative study of post-abortion care in Bolivia and Mexico,” Social Science & Medicine, 64:2210-2222.

Canoutas E, Hart L and Zan T. 2012. Eight Strategies for Research to Practice. Moving Evidence to Action. FHI 360. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Crewe E and Young J. 2002. “Bridging Research and Policy: Context, Evidence and Links.” Overseas Development Institute Working Paper No. 173. London, England: Overseas Development Institute.

Davis P, and Howden-Chapman P. 1996. “Translating research findings into health policy.” Social Science and Medicine (43)5: 865-872.

Haines A and Donald A. 1998. “Getting Research Findings into Practice: Using Research Findings in Clinical Practice”. BMJ: 317:339-342 (1 August).

Hanson K, Cleary S, Schneider H et al. 2010. “Scaling up health policies and services in low-and middle-income settings,” BMC Health Services Research, 10(Suppl 1):11

Hunt SM. 1993. “The relationship between research and policy: Translating knowledge into action.” In Healthy Cities: Research and Practice. Eds. John Davies and Michael Kelly. London, England: Routledge.

Ir P, Bigdeli M, Meessen B et al. 2010. “Translating knowledge into policy and action to promote health equity: The Health Equity Fund policy process in Cambodia 2000-2008”. Health Policy, 96: 200-209.

Marin MC, Gage A, Khan S. 2004. “Frontiers in Reproductive Health” Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Final Report, December, 2004.

Nutbeam N. 1996. “Achieving ‘best practice’ in health promotion: Improving the fit between research and practice.” Health Education Research 11(3): 317-326.

Orosz E. 1994. “The impact of social science research on health policy.”Social Science and Medicine 39(9): 1287-93.

Pérez D, Lefevre P, Castro M et al. 2011. “Process-oriented fidelity research assists in evaluation, adjustment and scaling-up of community-based interventions,” Health Policy and Planning, 26: 413–422.

Population Council. Undated but estimated 2008. “Maximizing utilization of research“. FRONTIERS in Reproductive Health Legacy Series.

Porter RW and Prysor-Jones S. 1997. “Making a Difference to Policies and Programs: A Guide for Researchers.” Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA Project), Academy for Educational Development, Washington DC: SARA.

Pronovost P, Berenholtz S, Needham D. 2008. “Translating evidence into practice: a model for large scale knowledge translation”. BMJ, 337:a1714:963-965.
Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) website

Shelton JD. 2014. “Evidence-based public health: not only whether it works, but how it can be made to work practicably at scale.” Global Health Science and Practice 2(3) 253-257.

Stone D, Maxwell S, and Keating M. 2001. “Bridging Research and Policy.” Background paper for International Workshop Bridging Research and Policy, Warwick University, England, 16-17 July. England: Overseas Development Institute.

Syed S, Hyder A, Bloom G, et al. 2008. “Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: A case study from six countries”. Health Research Policy and Systems, 6:4.

Walley J, Khan MA, Shah SK, Witter S, Xiaolin W. 2007. “How to get research into practice: first get practice into research”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85 (6):424-5.

World Health Organization. 2006. “Bridging the ‘Know-Do’ Gap”. Meeting on Knowledge Translation in Global Health,” 10-12 October, 2005, Geneva, Switzerland.

World Health Organization. 2006. “Turning Research into Practice”. suggested actions from case-studies of sexual and reproductive health research.

Yamey G. 2012. “What are the barriers to scaling up health interventions in low and middle income countries? A qualitative study of academic leaders in implementation science,” Globalization and Health, 8:11.

Health – General

Awoonor‐Williams JK, Phillips JF, and Bawah AA. 2016. "Catalyzing the scale‐up of community‐based primary healthcare in a rural impoverished region of northern Ghana." Int J Health Plann Mgmt, 31e273– e289

Awoonor-Williams JK, Feinglass ES, Tobey R, Vaughan-Smith MN, Nyonator FK, Jones TC. 2004. “Bridging the Gap Between Evidence-based Innovation and National Health-sector Reform in Ghana” Studies in Family Planning 35 (3), 161–177.

Bajpai N and Dholakia RH. 2006. “Scaling Up Primary Health Services in Rural Rajasthan: Public Investment Requirements and Health Sector Reform”CGSD Working Paper No. 32. Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development, The Earth Institute at Columbia University.

Bao J, Rodriguez DC, Paina L, Ozawa S and Bennett S. 2015. "Monitoring and Evaluating the Transition of Large-Scale Programs in Global Health." Global Health: Science and Practice 3:4.

Bennett, S & Paterson, M. 2003. “Piloting Health System Reforms: A Review of Experience.” Technical Report No. 019. Bethesda, MD: The Partners for Health Reformplus Project, Abt Associates Inc.

Bijlmakers L, Cornelissen D, Cheelo M, Nthele M, Kachimba J, Broekhuizen H, Gajewski J, Brugha R. 2018. "The cost of providing and scaling up surgery: a comparison of a district hospital and a referral hospital in Zambia." Health Policy and Planning. 33(10):1055–1064.

Binagwaho A, Wagner CM, Gatera M. et al. 2012. “Achieving high coverage in Rwanda's national human papillomavirus vaccination programme.” Bull World Health Organ, 90, 623–628.

Bryce J, Victora CG, Boerma T, Peters DH, and Black RE. 2011. “Evaluating the scale-up for maternal and child survival: a common framework.” Int. Health, 3 (3): 139-146

Bryce J, Victora CG, and MCE-IMCI Technical Advisors. 2005. “Ten methodological lessons from the multi-country evaluation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness.” Health Policy and Planning, 20 Suppl 1, i94-i105

Chopra, M. and Ford, N. 2005. “Scaling up health promotion interventions in the era of HIV/AIDS: challenges for a rights based approach”. Oxford University Press: Health Promotion International, Vol 20, No. 4.

Colombini M, Mayhew SH, Ali SH et al.  2012. “An integrated health sector response to violence against women in Malaysia: lessons for supporting scale up,” BMC Public Health, 12:548-557.

CORE. 2005. “Scale’ and ‘Scaling-Up’” A CORE Group Background Paper on Scaling-Up Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Services” ,July 11, 2005.

Gillespie D, Karklins S, Creanga A, Khan S, Cho NH. “Scaling Up Health Technologies: Report and Bibliography” 2007. The Bill and Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Global Health Workforce Alliance/World Health Organization. 2008. “Scaling up, Saving Lives”. Task Force for Scaling Up Education and Training for Health Workers.

Huicho, L. , Davila M., Campos M., Drasbek C., Bryce J., and Victora CG. 2005. “Scaling up Integrated Management of Childhood Illness to the national level: achievements and challenges in Peru“. Health Policy and Planning, 20: 14-24.

Kirk, E., Standing H. 2005. “Institutional issues in scaling up programmes for meeting the health related needs of the very poor.” Institute of Development Studies,
University of Sussex, UK.

Knippenberg, R. et al. 2005. “Neonatal Survival 3: Systematic Scaling Up of Neonatal Care in Countries“. The Lancet, Vol. 365, No. 9464, pg. 1087.

Krumholz AR, Stone AE, Dalaba MA et al. 2015. “Factors facilitating and constraining the scaling up of an evidence-based strategy of community-based primary care: Management perspectives from northern Ghana.” Global Public Health, 10(3), 366-378.

Lippeveld T. 2007. “Scaling up key public health interventions.” Boston, MA, John Snow, Inc.

Lovell, C. and F.H. Abed. 1993. “Scaling-up in health: Two decades of learning in Bangladesh.” In Reaching Health for All. Eds. Jon Rohde, Meera Chatterjee, David Morley, and Stephen Marazzi. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.

Management Sciences for Health (MSH). 2008. The Leadership, Management and Sustainability (LMS) Final Report.

Mansour M, Mansour JB, El Swesy AH. 2010. “Scaling up proven public health interventions through a locally owned and sustained leadership development programme in rural Upper Egypt“. Human Resources for Health, 8:1

Marchione TJ, Ed. 1999. “Scaling up, scaling down: overcoming malnutrition in developing countries.” Australia: Gordon and Breach.

Mills A and K Hanson, Eds. 2003. Expanding Access to Health Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Constraints and Opportunities for Scaling-Up. Journal of International Development Special Issue: Vol 15(1), Pages 1 – 131.

Myers, R.G. 1992. The Twelve Who Survive: Strengthening Programmes of Early Childhood Development in the Third World. London, England: UNESCO/Routledge.

Nakimuli-Mpungu E,  Alderman S, Kinyanda E et al “Implementation and scale-up of psycho-trauma centers in a post-conflict area: a case study of a private-public partnership in Northern Uganda,” PLoS Medicine 10 (4): e1001427.

Nyonator FK, Akosa AB, Awoonor-Williams JK et al. 2007. "Scaling-up experimental project success with the Community-based Health Planning and Services initiative in Ghana." In: Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, eds. Scaling up health service delivery: from pilot innovations to policies and programmes. Geneva, World Health Organization, 89–111.

Nyonator FK, Awoonor-Williams JK, Phillips JF, Jones TC, and Miller RA. 2005. “The Ghana Community-based Health Planning and Services Initiative for scaling up service delivery innovation” Health Policy and Planning, 20: 25-34.

Pelletier D, Corsi A, Hoey L, Houston R, Faillace S. 2010. “Program Assessment Guide“. A2Z Project, AED, Washington, DC.

Pelletier D, Houston R, Faillace S. 2010. “Program Documentation Guide”. A2Z Project, AED, Washington DC.

Petersen S. 2010. “Assessing the scale up of child survival interventions.”The Lancet Volume 375, Issue 9714, Pages 530 – 531.

Phillips, J., R. Simmons, G. Simmons, and M. Yunus. 1984. “Transferring health and family planning services innovations to the public sector: An experiment in organization development in Bangladesh.” Studies in Family Planning 15(2): 62-73.

Phillips JF, Awoonor-Williams JK, Bawah AA, Nimako BA, Kanlisi N, Sheff MC, Jackson EF, Asuming PO, Biney A, and Kyei P. 2018. "What do you do with success? The science of scaling up a health systems strengthening intervention in Ghana." BMC Health Services Research 18 (1): 1

Pokhrel, S. 2006. “Scaling up health interventions in resource-poor countries: what role does research in stated-preference framework play?” Health Research Policy and Systems: Mar 30;4:4.

Poletti, T. et al. 2007. “The Desirability and Feasibility of Scaling Up Community Health Insurance in Low-Income Settings – Lessons From Armenia“. Social Science & Medicine, Vol 64, pp.509-520.

Shiffman J. 2007. “Generating Political Priority for Public Health Causes in Developing Countries: Implications From a Study on Maternal Mortality”.Center for Global Development Brief.

Shigayeva A and Coker RJ. 2015. "Communicable disease control programmes and health systems: an analytical approach to sustainability." Health Policy and Planning, 30(3), 368–385.

Snetro-Plewman G, Tapia M, Uccelani V, Brasington A, McNulty M. 2007. “Taking community empowerment to scale—Lessons from three successful experiences“. (Health Communication Insights.) Baltimore: Health Communication Partnership based at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs.

Spicer N, Bhattacharya D, Dimka R, Fanta F, Mangham-Jefferies L, Schellenberg J, Tamire-Woldemariam A, Walt G, and Wickremashinghe D. 2014. "‘Scaling-up is a craft not a science’: Catalysing scale-up of health innovations in Ethiopia, India and Nigeria." Social Science and Medicine, 121, 30-38.

Uvin P and D. Miller. 1994. “Scaling up: Thinking through the issues”. The World Hunger Program.

Uvin P and D. Miller. 1996. “Paths to scaling-up: Alternative strategies for local nongovernmental organizations.” Human Organization 55(3): 344-354.

Uvin P. 1996. “Scaling up the grassroots and scaling down the summit: the relations between third world NGOs and the UN.” In NGOs, the UN, and Global Governance. Eds. Thomas G. Weiss and Leon Gordenker. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, Inc.

Uvin P. 1999. “Eliminating hunger after the end of the Cold War: Progress and constraints.” In Scaling Up, Scaling Down – Overcoming Malnutrition in Developing Countries. Ed. Thomas J. Marchione. Australia: Gordon and Breach.

Ved R. 2009. “Scaling-up ICDS: Can Universalisation Address Persistent Malnutrition?”. IDS Bulletin Volume 40(4):53-59.

Victora CG,  Barros FC, Assuncao MC et al. 2012. “Scaling up maternal nutrition programs to improve birth outcomes: a review of implementation issues,” Food & Nutrition Bulletin, 33( Suppl 1): S6-26.

Wazir R. and N. van Oudenhoven. 1998. “Increasing the coverage of social programmes.” International Social Science Journal 50(155): 145-154.

World Health Organization. 2005. “Estimating the Cost of Scaling-up Maternal and Newborn Health Interventions to Reach Universal Coverage: methodology and assumptions”. Technical Working Paper.

World Health Organization. 2015. "The MAPS Toolkit: mHealth Assessment and Planning for Scale." Geneva: World Health Organization.


Bennet S, Boerma JT, and Brugha R. 2006. “Scaling up HIV/AIDS evaluation”. The Lancet, Vol 367: 79-82.

Biesma R, Brugha R, Harmer A. 2009. “The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control”. Health Policy and Planning 2009 24(4):239-252;

Binswanger, H.P. 2000. Scaling up HIV/AIDS Programs to National Coverage. Science, New Series, Vol 288, No. 5474. pp. 2173-2176.

Brugha R, Simbaya J, Walsh A et al.  2010. “How HIV/AIDS scale-up has impacted on non- HIV priority services in Zambia,” BMC Public Health, 10:540.

Causey P. 2008. “Scaling up HIV programming for men who have sex
with men – the experience in Asia and the Pacific”
. A report to the Global Forum on MSM & HIV. Asia Pacific Coalition on Male Sexual Health. Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations.

Cleary SM. 2010. “Commentary: Trade-offs in scaling up HIV treatment in South Africa”. Health Policy and Planning 2010 25(2):99-101.

DeJong, J. 2001. “A question of scale? The challenge of increasing the scale of non-governmental organisations’ HIV/AIDS efforts in developing countries.” Horizons/Alliance Project on Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Programmes. Washington D.C.: Population Council.

DeJong, J. 2003. Making an Impact in HIV and AIDS: NGO Experiences of Scaling Up. London, England: Intermediate Technology Development Group Publishing.

Fitzgerald J, Dahl-Regis M, Gomez P, Del Riego A. 2005. “A Multidisciplinary Approach to Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care: The Experience of the Bahamas.” Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 17, 66-72.

Fitzgerald L, Benzerga W, Mirira M, et al. 2016. “Scaling Up Early Infant Male Circumcision: Lessons From the Kingdom of Swaziland.” Global Health: Science and Practice July 2016, 4(Supplement 1):S76-S86.

Global HIV Prevention Working Group. 2007. “Bringing HIV Prevention to Scale: An Urgent Global Priority”.

Hanefeld J, Musheke M. 2009. “What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia”. Human Resources for Health, 7:8.

Harries AD, Makombe SD, Libamba E et al. 2011. “Why did the scale-up of HIV treatment work? A case example from Malawi,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: 57(Suppl.2): S64–7.

Harries, A., E. Schouten, et al. (2006). “Scaling up antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings.” Lancet 367(9525): 1870-1872.

Helfenbein S and CA Severo. 2004. “Scaling up HIV/AIDS Programs: A manual for multisectoral planning”. Management Sciences for Health.

Horizons Program, YRG CARE, and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance. 2004. “Expanding Care and Support in South India: Scaling Up YRG CARE’s Patient-Centered Approach,” Horizons Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Population Council.

Kober, K., Van Damme, W. 2004. “Scaling Up Access to Antiretroviral treatment in Southern Africa: Who Will Do the Job?” The Lancet, Vol 364, No. 9428, p 103.

Kumaranayake L. 2008. "The economics of scaling up: cost estimation for HIV-AIDS interventions." AIDS; 22(S1): S23-33

Lowrance DW, Makombe SD,  Harries AD,  et al. 2008. “A Public Health Approach to Rapid Scale-Up of Antiretroviral Treatment in Malawi During 2004-2006”. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 3:287-293.

MacGregor H, McKenzie A, Jacobs T, et al. 2018. “Scaling up ART adherence clubs in the public sector health system in the Western Cape, South Africa: a study of the institutionalisation of a pilot innovation.” Globalization and Health volume 14, Article number: 40 (2018).

Management Sciences for Health (MSH). 2004. Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Programs. USA Agency for International Development (USAID).

Mugwanya KK, Irungu E, Bukusi E, Mugo NR, Odoyo J, Wamoni E et al. 2018. "Scale up of PrEP integrated in public health HIV care clinics: a protocol for a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized rollout in Kenya." Implementation Science 13:118.

Nsutebu, E.F., Walley, J.D., Mataka, E., and Simon, C.F. 2001. “Scaling-up HIV/AIDS and TB home-based care: lessons from Zambia“. Health Policy and Planning; 16(3): 240-247.

Phillips, J., F. Nyonator, Barkat-e-Khuda, R. Miller, T.C. Jones, and S. Ravikumar. 2002. “Utilizing Field Experiments for Evidence-Based Health Program Development in Bangladesh and Ghana: Implications for HIV/AIDS Programs in resource constrained settings.” Paper presented at Global Conference on HIV/AIDS, Barcelona, Spain, July.

Phiri S, Foster G, Nzima M. “Expanding and strengthening community action: A study to explore ways to scale up effective, sustainable community mobilization interventions to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on children and families”. Washington: Displaced Children and Orphans Fund of USAID, 2001.

Rasschaert F, Philips M, Leemput V et al. 2011. “Tackling health workforce shortages during antiretroviral treatment scale-up—Experiences from Ethiopia and Malawi,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 57(Suppl 2): S109–12.

Renju J, Andrew B, Nyalali K et al. 2010. “A process evaluation of the scale up of a youth-friendly health services initiative in northern Tanzania.”Journal of the International AIDS Society, 13:32.

Safe Youth Worldwide. 2005. “Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programs for Youth: The Essential Elements Framework in Action”. New York: Margaret Sanger Center International.

Schneider H, Coetzee D, Van Rensburg D et al. 2010. “Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: The role of implementation management.” BMC Health Services Research, 10(Suppl 1):S4.

Scott VE, Chopra M, Conrad L et al. 2005. “How equitable is the scaling up of HIV service provision in South Africa?” South African Medical Journal, 95(2): 109-13.

Sgaier SK, Anthony J, Bhattacharjee P, Baer J, Malve V, Bhalla A, and Hugar VS. 2014. "Strengthening government management capacity to scale up HIV prevention programs through the use of Technical Support Units: lessons from Karnataka state, India." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2(4):444-58.

Sgaier SK, Ramakrishnan A, Dhhingra N et al. 2013. “How the Avahan HIV Prevention Program transitioned from the Gates Foundation to the Government of India.” Health Affairs, 32: 1265-73.

Stephens, D. 2006. “Stigma, Scale-up, and Treatment Governance: Stumbling Block or Window of Opportunity?” United States Agency for International Development.

Van Damme W, Kober K, Kegels G. 2008. “Scaling-up antiretroviral treatment in Southern African countries with human resource shortage: How will health systems adapt?” Social Science & Medicine, 66: 2108-2121.

World Bank. 2004. “Scaling-up a Community-Driven HIV/AIDS Program in Malawi”. SD Note No. 96 /October 2004. Social Development Notes – Community-driven Development.

World Health Organization. 2004. “An Approach to Rapid Scale-up: Using HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care as an Example”. HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

Evidence and Information for Policy, World Health Organization, Geneva.
WHO, UNAIDS, UNICEF. 2008. “Towards Universal Access: Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector” WHO, UNAIDS and UNICEF Progress Report.

Malaria and TB

Basri C, Bergstrom K, Walton W, et al. 2009. “Sustainable scaling up of good quality health worker education for tuberculosis control in Indonesia: a case study.” Human resources for health, 7:85.

Faye S, Cico A, Gueye AB, Baruwa E, Johns B, Ndiop M, and Alilio M. 2018. "Scaling up malaria intervention “packages” in Senegal: using cost effectiveness data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making." Malaria Journal. 17:159.

Gotsadze G, Chikovani I, Sulaberidze L, Gotsadze T, Goguadze K, and Tavanxhi N. 2019. "The Challenges of Transition From Donor-Funded Programs: Results From a Theory-Driven Multi-Country Comparative Case Study of Programs in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Supported by the Global Fund." Global Health: Science and Practice. 7(2)258-272

Khaparde S, Raizada N, Nair SA, Denkinger C, Sachdeva KS, Paramasivan CN, et al. 2017. "Scaling-up the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in India: An economic analysis." PLoS ONE 12(9): e0184270.

Magesa SM, Lengeler C, deSavigny D, Miller JE, Njau RJA, Kramer K, Kitua A, Mwita A. 2005. “Creating an “enabling environment” for taking insecticide treated nets to national scale: the Tanzanian experience” Malaria Journal, 4:34.

Nsutebu, E.F., Walley, J.D., Mataka, E., and Simon, C.F. 2001. “Scaling-up HIV/AIDS and TB home-based care: lessons from Zambia”. Health Policy and Planning; 16(3): 240-247.

Orobaton N, Austin AM, Abegunde D, Ibrahim M, Mohammed Z, Abdul-Azeez J et al. 2016. "Scaling-up the use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: results and lessons on scalability, costs and programme impact from three local government areas in Sokoto State, Nigeria" Malaria Journal. 15:533

Roll Back Malaria/Working Group for Scaling-up Insecticide-treated Netting. 2005. “Scaling up Insectide-treated netting Programs in Africa”. Geneva, World Health Organization.

Winskill P, Walker PG, Griffin JT, et al. 2017.
"Modelling the cost-effectiveness of introducing the RTS,S malaria vaccine relative to scaling up other malaria interventions in sub-Saharan Africa."
BMJ Global Health. 2017;2:e000090.


Reproductive health

Advance Africa, Undated. "Ten dimensions of scaling up reproductive health programs: An introduction."

Askew, I., Matthews, Z., Partridge, R. 2001. “Going Beyond Research: A key issues paper raising discussion points related to dissemination, utilisation and impact of reproductive and sexual health research”, from the Moving Beyond Research to Influence Policy Workshop, January 23-24, 2001, University of Southampton.

Bellows B, Nambao M, Jaramillo L, Fanaiayan R, Dennis M, and Hardee K. 2016. “Scaling Up Family Planning in Zambia – Part 1: Assessment and Feasibility of Maintaining and Innovative Program,” Research Report. Washington, DC: Population Council, The Evidence Project.

Bergh A, Allanson E, Pattinson R. 2015. “What is needed for taking emergency obstetric and neonatal programmes to scale?” Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol., 29(8):1017-27.

Bhandari N, Kabir AKMI, and Salam MA. 2008. “Mainstreaming nutrition into maternal and child health programmes: scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding.” Maternal and Child Nutrition, 4, 5-23.

Billings DL, Crane BB, Benson J, Solo J, Fetters T. 2007. “Scaling-up a public health innovation: A comparative study of post-abortion care in Bolivia and Mexico”. Social Science and Medicine, 64(11):2210-22.

Bitar S. 2011. ”Increasing HTSP knoweledge and postpartum contraceptive use among the urban poor: Scaling-up best practices Nepal.” Best Practices Brief No. 4, Extending Service Delivery (ESD) Project, Pathfinder International.

Bornstein T.  2011. “The Improvement Collaborative in Yemen: A scale-up approach for expanding access to postpartum maternal and newborn care and family planning: Scaling-up best practices in Yemen”.  Washington DC: Extending Service Delivery Project.

Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence. Milat AJ, Newson R, and King L. 2014. "Increasing the scale of population health interventions: A guide." Evidence and Evaluation Guidance Series, Population and Public Health Division. Sydney: NSW Ministry of Health.

Chandra-Mouli V, Baltag V,  Ogbaselassie L. 2013. “Strategies to sustain and scale up youth friendly health services in the Republic of Moldova”. BMC Public Health. 13: 284-288.

Collins, D and Gilmartin, C. 2016. “Scaling Up Family Planning in Zambia – Part 2: The Cost of Scaling Up Family Planning Services.” Research Report. Washington, DC: Population Council, The Evidence Project.

Curry L, Taylor L, Pallas SW et al.  2013. “Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): A systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model,” Reproductive Health, 10:39.

Díaz J, Simmons R, Diaz M et al.  2007.  “Scaling up family planning service innovations in Brazil: the influence of politics and decentralization.” In: Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, eds. Scaling up health service delivery: from pilot innovations to policies and programmes. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 135-156.

Dickson KE, Kinney MV, Moxon SG, et al. 2015. “Scaling up quality care for mothers and newborns around the time of birth: an overview of methods and analyses of intervention-specific bottlenecks and solutions.” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15(2), 1.

Duvall, S., Thurston, S., Weinberger, M., Nuccio, O., & Fuchs-Montgomery, N. 2014. “Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International.” Global Health: Science and Practice, 2(1), 72-92.

Evelia, H., Nyambane, J., Birungi, H., Askew, I., Trangsrud, R., Muthuuri, E., Omuruli, J. 2008. "From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project. FRONTIERS Final Report." Washington, DC: Population Council.

Fajans P, Thi Thom N, Whittaker M et al. 2007. “Strategic choices in scaling-up: introducing injectable contraception and improving quality of care in Viet Nam.” In: Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, eds. Scaling up health service delivery: from pilot innovations to policies and programmes. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 31–51.

Fajans P, Simmons R. 2016. “The Urban Reproductive Health Initiatives: A Comparative Review of ISSU, NURHI, Tupange, and the UHI.” Report submitted to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. ExpandNet.

Family Health International/YouthNet. 2006. “The Role of Community Involvement in Improving Reproductive Health and Preventing HIV among Young People – Report of a Technical Consultation”. November 8-9, 2005. (Scaling Up Programs, P. 26).

Fernandez-Cerdero A, Vernon R, Hossain S, Keesbury J, and Khan M. 2009. “Introduction and Scaling-up of Emergency Contraception: Lessons Learned from Three Regions.” Population Review, 48(1).

Frontiers in Reproductive Health. 2005. “Building National Capacity to Deliver Emergency Contraception Services in Bangladesh”. New Dehli, India: Population Council.

Gasco M, Hedgecock D, Wright C. 2007. “Romania: Reaching the poor – scaling up integrated family planning services.” Boston, MA, John Snow Inc.

Global Health: Science and Practice. Editorial. 2016. "Birthing centers staffed by skilled birth attendants: can they be effective at scale?" Global Health Science and Practice 4(1):1-3.

Gonzales F, Arteaga E, Howard-Grabman, L. 1998. “Scaling up the Warmi Project: Lessons learned, mobilizing Bolivian communities around reproductive health,” Save the Children Fund; 98:11. In: “High impact PVO child survival programs. Volume 2. Proceedings of an Expert Consultation,” Gallaudet University, Washington, DC, June 21-24, 1998, edited by Barton R. Burkhalter and Victoria L. Graham. Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS].

Haaga, J. and R. Maru. 1996. “The effect of operations research on program changes in Bangladesh.” Studies in Family Planning 27(2): 76-87.

Halperin DT. 2014. “Scaling up of family planning in low-income countries: lessons from Ethiopia,” Lancet, 383(9924): 1264 – 1267.

Healey J, Conlon CM, Malama K, Hobson R, Kaharuza F, Kekitiinwa A, et al; Saving Mothers, Giving Life Working Group. 2019.
"Sustainability and scale of the Saving Mothers, Giving Life approach in Uganda and Zambia." Glob Health Science and Practice. 7(suppl 1):S188-206.

Hermida J, Robalino ME, Vaca L et al. 2005. “Scaling up and institutionalizing continuous quality improvement in the free maternity and child care program in Ecuador,” LACHSR Report Number 65. Published for USAID by the Quality Assurance Project.

Hobday K, Hulme J, Prata N, Wate PZ, Belton S, Homer C. 2019. "Scaling up misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births in Mozambique: a case study applying the ExpandNet/WHO framework." Glob Health Science and Practice 7(1):66-86.

Hodgins S, McPherson R, Suvedi BK et al. 2010. “Testing a scalable community-based approach to improve maternal and neonatal health in rural Nepal,” Journal of Perinatology, 30: 388-95.

Hodgins S, Valsangkar B, Patterson J, Wall S, Riggs-Perla J. 2018. "Caution needed to avoid empty scale-up of Kangaroo Mother Care in low-income settings." Journal of Global Health. 8(1): 010306.

Huntington, D. and L. Nawar. 2003. “Moving from research to program: The Egyptian postabortion care initiative.” International Family Planning Perspectives 29(3): 121-125.

Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University. 2012. “A systems approach to the M and E of scale up: A technical consultation report.”Washington DC.

Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University. 2013. “Promising practices for scale-up: A prospective case study of Standard Days Method® integration,” The FAM Project, Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University.

Jordan K, Butrick E, Yamey G, Miller S. 2016. "Barriers and Facilitators to Scaling Up the Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment for Treating Obstetric Hemorrhage: A Qualitative Study." PLoS ONE 11(3): e0150739.

Kaufman J, Zhang E, Xie Z. 2007. “Quality of care in China: from pilot project to national programme.” In: Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, eds. Scaling up health service delivery: from pilot innovations to policies and programmes. Geneva, World Health Organization, 53–70.

Koblinsky, M. et al. 2006. “Going to scale with professional skilled care.”The Lancet, Vol. 368: 1377-86.

Krueger K, Akol A, Wamala P et al. 2011. “Scaling up community provision of injectables through the public sector in Uganda,” Studies in Family Planning, 42:117-124.

Kulczycki A. 2018. "Overcoming Family Planning Challenges in Africa: Toward Meeting Unmet Need and Scaling Up Service Delivery." African Journal of Reproductive Health. 22(1).

Larson A, Raney L and Ricca J. 2014. “Lessons Learned from a Preliminary Analysis of the Scale-Up Experience of Six High-Impact Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (RMNCH) Interventions.” Jhpiego: Baltimore, MD.

MacDonagh, S. 2005.  “Achieving skilled attendance for all; a synthesis of current knowledge and recommended actions for scaling up” DFID Health Resource Centre, London, England.

Management Sciences for Health (MSH). 2002. “Ten dimensions of scaling up reproductive health programs: an introduction”. USA Agency for International Development (USAID).

Martin, A., M. McEvoy, and J.W. Townsend. 1991. “Approaches to strengthening the utilization of OR results: Dissemination.” In Operations Research: Helping Family Planning Programs Work Better. Eds. Marjorie Horn and Myrna Seidman. New York: Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Moran AC, Kerber K, Pfitzer A et al. 2012. “Benchmarks to measure readiness to integrate and scale up newborn survival interventions.” Health Policy and Planning, 27(suppl 3), iii29-iii39.

Nahar T, Azad K, Aumon BH et al. 2012. “Scaling up community mobilisation through women’s groups for maternal and neonatal health: experiences from rural Bangladesh,” BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 12:5.

Nair N, Tripathy P Costello A et al. 2012. “Mobilizing women’s groups for improved maternal and newborn health: Evidence for impact, and challenges for sustainability and scale Up,” International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 119(Suppl 1): S22-25.

Naziri M, Higgins-Steele A, Anwari Z, Yousufi K, Fossand K, Shah Amin S, Hipgrave DB, Varkey S. 2018. "Scaling up newborn care in Afghanistan: opportunities and challenges for the health sector." Health Policy and Planning, 33(2):271–282

Okegbe T, Affo J, Djihoun F, Zannou A, Hounyo O, Ahounou G, Bangboa KA and Harris N. 2019. "Introduction of Community-Based Provision of Subcutaneous Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA-SC) in Benin: Programmatic Results." Global Health: Science and Practice. 7(2):228-239.

Pathfinder International. 2011. “Integrating family planning and HIV in Ethiopia: An analysis of Pathfinder’s approach and scale-up,” Technical brief.

Pathfinder International. 2012 “Scale-up of task-shifting for community-based provision of Implanon. 2009-2011 technical summary.”

Perez-Escamilla R, Curry L, Minhas D et al. 2012. “Scaling up of breastfeeding promotion programs in low- and middle-income countries: the “breastfeeding gear” model,” Advances in Nutrition, 3: 790-800.

Phillips JF, Nyonator FK, Jones TC et al. 2007. "Evidence-based scaling-up of health and family planning service innovations in Bangladesh and Ghana." In: Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, eds. Scaling up health service delivery: from pilot innovations to policies and programmes. Geneva, World Health Organization.

Progress Project, FHI360. 2011. “Scaling up community-based distribution of injectable contraception: Case studies from Madagascar and Uganda.”

RamaRao S, Townsend JW, Diop N et al. 2011. “Post abortion care: going to scale”. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 37:40-4.

Renju JR, Andrew B, Medard L et al. 2011. “Scaling up adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions through existing government systems? A detailed process evaluation of a school-based intervention in Mwanza region in the northwest of Tanzania”. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(1) 79-86.

Renju J, Nyalali K, Andrew B et al. 2010. “Scaling up a school- based sexual and reproductive health intervention in rural Tanzania: A process evaluation describing the implementation realities for the teachers,” Health Education Research, 25(6:903-916).

Rottach E, Hardee K, Jolivet R et al. 2012. “Integrating gender into the scale-up of family planning and maternal, neonatal, and child health programs.” Working Paper No. 1. Futures Group, Health Policy Project, Washington, DC.

Samandari G, Wolf M, Basnett I et al. 2012. “Implementation of legal abortion in Nepal: a model for rapid scale-up of high-quality care,”Reproductive Health, 9:7 doi:10.1189/1742-4755-9-7.

Simmons R, Brown JW, Díaz.M. 2002. “Facilitating large scale transitions to quality of care in family planning programs: An idea whose time has come.” Studies in Family Planning 33(1): 61-75.

Simmons R, Ghiron L, Fajans P. 2012. “Scaling up the Standard Days Method® of family planning in five countries,” Unpublished manuscript.

Skibiak J, Mijere P, Zama M. 2007. “Expanding contraceptive choice and improving quality of care in Zambia’s Copperbelt: A case study in moving from pilot projects to regional programmes.” In: Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, eds. Scaling up health service delivery: from pilot innovations topolicies and programmes. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Smith, J. and C. Colvin. 2000. “Getting to scale in young adult reproductive health programs.” Focus on Young Adults 2000. Focus Tool Series 3, Futures Group International.

Smith JM, de Graft-Johnson J, Zyaee P, Ricca J and Fullerton J. 2015. "Scaling up high-impact interventions: How is it done?" International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 130(2015) S4-S10.

Tall Thiam, F., Suh, S., Moreira, P. 2006. “Scaling Up Postabortion Care Services: Results from Senegal”. Cambridge, MA: MSH Occasional Paper No. 5.

World Health Organization (WHO). 2018. "WHO Concise Guide to Implementing and Scaling Up Family Planning Service Improvements." GenevaWHO.

Yothasamut J, Putchon C, Sirisamutr T et al. 2010. “Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand.” BMC Health Services Research, 10(Suppl 1):S5.

Development – General

Appadurai AN, Chaudhury M, Dinshaw A, Ginoya N, McGray H, Rangwala L, Srivatsa S. 2015. "Scaling Success: Lessons from Adaptation Pilots in the Rainfed Regions of India." Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute.

Berwick DM. 2004. “Lessons from developing nations on improving health care,” BMJ 328:1124-1129.

Binswanger, H.P, and Aiyar, S.S. 2003. "Scaling Up Community Driven Development Theoretical Underpinnings and Program Design Implications." Mimeo. The World Bank.

Chambers, DA and Norton WE. 2016. “The Adaptome: advancing the science of intervention adaptation.”Am J Prev Med.

Chambers, R. 1992. “Spreading and self-improving: A strategy for scaling-up.” In Making a difference: NGOs and Development in a Changing World. Eds. Michael Edwards and David Hulme. London, England: Save the Children/Earthscan.

Chambers R. 2009. “Going to Scale with Community-Led Total Sanitation: Reflections on Experience, Issues and Ways Forward”. Institute of Development Studies. Sussex, England.

Chandy L, Linn JF. 2011. “Taking development activities to scale in fragile and low capacity environments,” Global Economy & Development Working Paper 41, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC.

Chapman, K. 2005. “Using Social Transfers to Scale Up Equitable Access to Education and Health Services” Background Paper, DFID Policy Division.

Clark, J. 1991. "Democratizing Development." London, England: Earthscan.

Clark, J. 1992. “Policy influence, lobbying and advocacy.” In Making a difference: NGOs and Development in a Changing World. Eds. Michael Edwards and David Hulme. London, England: Save the Children/Earthscan.

Cooley L and Papoulidis J. 2017. "Scalable solutions in fragile states." Future Development Blog, The Brookings Institution. 

Davis, D. (2004). “Scaling-Up Action Research Project, Phase One: Lessons from Six Case Studies.” CDD Scaling Up Action Research Workshop at the World Bank, Washington DC.

Degrande, A., Kanmegne, J., Tchoundjeu, Z., Mpeck, M., Sado, T., & Tsobeng, A. 2006, November. “Mechanisms for scaling-up tree domestication: how grassroots organizations become agents of change.”Paper presented at the Innovation Africa Symposium, Kampala.

Denning GL. 2001. “Realising the Potential of Agroforestry: Integrating Research and Development to Achieve Greater Impact.” Development in Practice, 11(4), 407-416.

Edwards M. and D. Hulme. 1992. “Scaling-up the developmental impact of NGOs: Concepts and experiences.” In Making a difference: NGOs and Development in a Changing World. Eds. Michael Edwards and David Hulme. London, England: Save the Children/Earthscan.

Franzel S, Denning GL, Lillesø JPB & Mercado Jr. AR. 2004. “Scaling Up the Benefits of Agroforestry Research: Lessons from three sites in Africa and Asia Agroforestry Systems. 61: 329.

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Advancing scale up

ExpandNet is an informal network of global health and development professionals who seek to advance the science and practice of scale up.




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