Scaling-Up Bibliography

This bibliography includes publications, websites, grey literature, and conference reports that either directly address scaling up or provide valuable insights on scaling up. Included are materials from the health, development and education fields as well as selected pieces from vast literatures on the diffusion of innovation, technology or knowledge transfer, research or knowledge utilization, research dissemination, putting research into practice as well as literature from the policy, organization and management sciences.

The bibliographic entries are grouped into the below categories. Many contain links to the original material or a way to order it.

  • Scaling up theories, frameworks and concepts
  • Research utilization
  • Content-specific:
    • Health - general
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Malaria and tuberculosis
    • Reproductive health
  • Development
  • Education



Adamou B.  2013. “Guide for monitoring scale-up of health practices and interventions,” MEASURE Evaluation PRH, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

African Youth Alliance. 2000. Scaling-Up.

Bradach J. 2004. "Going to Scale: The Challenge of Replicating Social Programs". Stanford Social Innovation Review, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

Bradley EH, Curry L, Pérez-Escamilla R et al. 2011. “Dissemination, diffusion and scale up of family health innovations in low-income countries” – Abridged. Yale Global Health Leadership Institute, New Haven.

Bradley EH, Curry LA, Taylor LA et al.  2012. "A model for scale up of family health innovations in low-income and middle-income settings: A mixed methods study," BMJ Open, Aug 24;2(4).

Cooley, L and R. Kohl. 2005. "Scaling Up—From Vision to Large-scale Change: A Management Framework for Practitioners" Washington, D.C.: Management Systems International.

Cooley L, R. Ved.  2012. “Scaling up - from vision to large-scale change: a management framework for practitioners, second edition,” Management Systems International (MSI), Washington DC.

Cooley L, Ved R, Fehlenberg K. 2012. “Scaling up—from vision to largeâ€ÂÂÂÂ┬Éscale change: Tools and techniques for practitioners,” Management Systems International (MSI), Washington DC.

Dickson KE, Simen-Kapeu A, Kinney MV, Et al.  2014. "Health–systems bottlenecks and strategies to accelerate scale-up in countries." Lancet, 384(9941) 438-454.

Duflo E. 2004. "Scaling Up and Evaluation". The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank.

Evans SH and Clark P. 2011. "Disseminating orphan innovations". Stanford Social Innovation Review. Winter 2011. Leland Stanford Junior University.

ExpandNet website/tools. 2005-2010. "Our tools" available at

Fajans P, Simmons R, Ghiron L. 2006. “Helping public sector health systems innovate: the strategic approach to strengthening reproductive health policies and programs,” American Journal of Public Health, 96:435-440.

Fixsen A. 2013. “Monitoring and Evaluating Scaling up of health system Interventions: Theory and Practice.” Draft manuscript.

Franco LM, Marquez L. 2011.  “Effectiveness of collaborative improvement: evidence from 27 applications in 12 less developed and middle income countries”.  British Medical Journal Quality Safety.   20-658-665

Fraser, SW. 2007. "Undressing the Elephant: Why the spread of good practice isn’t working in healthcare; presenting symptoms and suggested treatment". Lulu Press.

Frost LJ, Reich M. 2008. "Access: How do good health technologies get to poor people in poor countries?" Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. FutureGenerations. The Future Generations Model for Community Change, and the FutureGenerations website Going to Scale.

Ganju E, Heyman C. 2018. "Scaling Global Change: A Social Entrepreneur's Guide to Surviving the Start-up Phase and Driving Impact." Wiley.

Gaye PA, Nelson D. 2009. " Effective scale-up: Avoiding the same old traps." Human Resources for Health, 7:2.

Gericke CA, Kurowski C, Ranson MK et al.  2003. “Feasibility of scaling-up interventions: The role of intervention design,” Berlin University of Technology, Germany, and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, U.K.

Gericke, C. A., Kurowski, C., Ranson, M. K., & Mills, A. 2005. "Intervention Complexity: A Conceptual Framework to Inform Priority-setting in Health." Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83, 285-293.

Ghiron L, Shilingi L. Kabiswa C. 2014. “Beginning with sustainable scale up in mind: initial results from a population, health and environment project in East Africa”. RH Health Matters, 2(432)8492

Gilson l, Schneider H. 2010. "Commentary: Managing scaling up: what are the key issues?" Health Policy and Planning 25(2):97-98.

Gladwell, M. 2000. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Glaser, E.M. 1983. "Putting Knowledge to Use: Facilitating the Diffusion of Knowledge and the Implementation of Planned Change". San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Gonsalves, J. 2000." Going to scale: can we bring more benefits to more people more quickly?" Workshop highlights presented by the CGIAR-NGO Committee and The Global Forum for Agricultural Research with BMZ (German Ministry of Development Corporation), MISEREOR (German Catholic Church Development Agency), Rockefeller Foundation, IRRI (International Rice Research Institute), and IIRR (International Institute of Rural Reconstruction). 10-14 April, IIRR , Philippines.

Gray J. 2010. "Global health experts seek to transform programs through implementation science". Fogarty International Center. Global Health Matters Newsletter, Volume 9, Issue 2.

Hanson K, Ranson MK, Oliviera-Cruz V et al. 2003. “Expanding access to priority health interventions: a framework for understanding the constraints to scaling-up,” Journal of International Development, 15:1–14.

Hardee K, Ashford L, Rottach E et al. 2012.“The policy dimensions of scaling up health initiatives.” Health Policy Project,  Futures Group, Washington, DC.

Hardee K. 2013. “Approach for addressing and measuring policy development and implementation in the scale-up of family planning and maternal, neonatal, and child health programs,”  Futures Group, Health Policy Project, Washington, DC.

Hartmann A, and Linn J. 2008. "Scaling up: A framework and lessons for development effectiveness from literature and practice" Wolfensohn Center for Development, Working Paper 5. The Brookings Instituion, Washington.

Hartmann A, and Linn J. 2008. "Scaling up through aid - The real challenge". Wolfensohn Center for Development Policy Brief. The Brookings Instituion, Washington.

Havelock RG. 1971. "Planning for Innovation through Dissemination and Utilization of Knowledge". Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge, Institute for Social Research.

Igras S, Sinai I, Mukabatsinda M. 2014. “Systems approach to monitoring and evaluation guides scale up of the Standard Days Method of family planning in Rwanda.” Global Health Science and Practice 2 (2)234-244.

Implementation Science. An open access, peer-reviewed online journal, since 2006.

Implementing Best Practices Consortium. 2013. "Guide to fostering change to scale up effective health services: A K4H Toolkit”. Geneva, Washington DC.

Janowitz B, Bratt J, Homan R, Foreit J. 2007. "How Much Will It Cost to Scale Up a Reproductive Health Pilot Project?" Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program Brief No. 8. Population Council, Washington DC.

Johns B. and T. TanTorres. 2005. "Costs of scaling up health interventions: a systematic review". Health Policy and Planning. 20: 1-13.

Johns, B. and Baltussen, R. 2004." Accounting for the Cost of Scaling-Up Health Interventions. Health Economics". Vol. 13, pp. 1117-1124.

Jowell, R. 2003. “Trying it out – the role of pilots in policy-making: Report of a review of government pilots.” Edinburgh, Scotland: National Centre for Social Research.

Keyonzo N, Nyachae P, Kagwe P, et al. 2015. "From Project to Program: Tupange’s Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya". Reproductive Health Matters. 23(45):103-113.

Knippenberg R, Lawn JE, Darmstadt GL et al.  2005. “Systematic scaling up of neonatal care in countries,” Lancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team, 365(9464): 1087-1098.

Madon T, KJ Hofman, L Kupfer, RI Glass. 2007. Public Health: Implementation Science. Science. 318(5857):1728-1729.

Mattina D. 2006. "Money Isn't Everything: The Challenge of Scaling Up Aid to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals in Ethiopia". IMF Working Paper, Vol. , pp. 1-34.

Mangham LJ, Hanson K. 2010. "Scaling up in international health: what are the key issues?" Health Policy and Planning, 25(2):85-96.

Massoud MR, Donohue KL, McCannon CJ. 2010. “Options for large-scale spread of simple, high-impact interventions. Technical report”. USAID Health Care Improvement Project. Bethesda, Maryland.

Massoud MR, Nielsen GA, Nolan K et al. 2006. “A framework for spread: From local improvements to system-wide change." IHI Innovation Series white paper. Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Cambridge, MA.

McCannon CJ, Berwick DM, Massoud, MR. 2007. "The Science of Large-Scale Change in Global Health" JAMA, 298:1937-1939.

McCannon C J, Schall MW, Perla RJ. 2008. “Planning for scale: A guide for designing large-scale improvement initiatives.” IHI Innovation Series white paper.  Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Mills A, Hanson K, eds. 2003. "Expanding Access to Health Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Constraints and Opportunities for Scaling-Up." Special issue, Journal of International Development, Volume 15 Issue 1 , Pages 1 - 131.

Nyonator FK, Awoonor-Williams JK, Phillips JF et al. 2005. “The Ghana community-based health planning and services initiative for scaling up service delivery innovation.” Health Policy and Planning, 20(1):25-34.

Omimo A, Taranta D, Ghiron L, et al. 2018. "Applying ExpandNet’s Systematic Approach to Scaling Up in an Integrated Population, Health and Environment Project in East Africa" Social Sciences, 7(1), 8; doi:10.3390/socsci7010008

Paina L, Peters DH. 2011. "Understanding pathways for scaling up health services through the lens of complex adaptive systems," Health Policy and Planning, 1-9, doi: 10.1093/heapol/czr054.

Pallas SW, Minhas D, Perez-Escamilla R et al. 2013. “Community health workers in low- and middle-income countries: What do we know about scaling up and sustainability?”American Journal of Public Health:103:e74-82.

Partners for Health ReformPlus. 2004. "The role of pilot programs: Approaches to health systems strengthening" Bethesda, MD. PHRPlus, Abt Associates.

Peters DH, El-Saharty S, Siadat B, et al, Eds. 2009. "Improving Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries: From Evidence to Action". World Bank, Washington DC.

Pyle, D.F. 1980. “From pilot project to operational program in India: The problems of transition.” In Politics and Policy Implementation in the Third World. Ed. Merilee Serrill Grindle. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Robb-McCord, J. and W. Voet. 2003. "Scaling up practices, tools, and approaches in the maternal and neonatal health program" Baltimore: JHPIEGO Corp.

Rogers, E.M. 1995. Diffusion of Innovations. Fourth Edition. New York: Free Press.

Schouten LMT, Hulscher MEJL, Everdingen JJE, Et al. 2008. “Evidence for the impact of quality improvement collaboratives: systematic review.  British Medical Journal. 336:1491-1499

Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, Eds. 2007. "Scaling up Health Service Delivery: From Pilot Innovations to Policies and Programmes". World Health Organization.

Simmons R, Shiffman J.  2007. “Scaling-up reproductive health service innovations: a framework for action”. In: Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, eds. Scaling up health service delivery: from pilot innovations to policies and programmes. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Subramanian S, Naimoli J, Matsubayashi T et al. 2011. "Do we have the right models for scaling up health services to achieve the Millennium Development Goals?" BMC Health Services Research, 11:336.

Terris-Prestholt F, Kumaranayake L, Obasi AIN et al.2006. “From trial intervention to scale-up: costs of an adolescent sexual health program in Mwanza, Tanzania,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33 (10 SUPPL): S133-S139.

Uvin, P. 1995. “Fighting hunger at the grassroots: Paths to scaling up.” World Development: 23(6): 927-940.

Uvin, P. 1999. “Scaling up, scaling down: NGO paths to overcoming hunger.” In Scaling Up, Scaling Down - Overcoming Malnutrition in Developing Countries. Ed. Thomas J. Marchione. Australia: Gordon and Breach.

Uvin, P., Jain, P. S., & Brown, L. D. 2000. "Think Large and Act Small: Towards a New Paradigm for NGO Scaling Up." World Development, 28, 1409-1419.

Uvin P, Miller D. 1994. “Scaling up: Thinking through the issues.”  The World Hunger Program, Watson Institute of International Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI.

Victora C, Hanson K, et al. (2004). "Achieving universal coverage with health interventions." The Lancet 364(9444): 1541-1548.   

Wils F. 1995. “Scaling-up, mainstreaming and accountability: The challenge for NGOs.” In Non-Governmental Organisations: Performance and Accountability beyond the Magic Bullet. Eds. Michael Edwards and David Hulme. London, England: Earthscan.

Yamey G. 2011. “Scaling up global health interventions: A proposed framework for success.” PLoS Med 8:e1001049



Brownson RC, Colditz GA, Proctor EK. 2012. "Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health: Translating Science to Practice". Oxford University Press.

Fixsen D, Naoom SF, Blase KA, et al. 2005. "Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature". University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication #231).

George A, Menotti EP, Rivera D et al. 2011. “Community case management in Nicaragua: Lessons in fostering adoption and expanding implementation,Health Policy and Planning, 26: 327-337.

Norton WE, McCannon CJ, Schall MW et al. 2012. “A stakeholder-driven agenda for advancing the science and practice of scale-up and spread in health,Implementation Science, 7:118 

Peters DH, Adam T, Alonge O et al. 2013. “Implementation research: what it is and how to do it, BMJ, 347:f6753. 

Peters DH, Tran NT, Adam T. 2013. “Implementation research in health: a practical guide,” Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, World Health Organization, Geneva.


Bero LA, Grill RI, Grimshaw JW, Harvey E, Oxman AD, and Thomson MA. 1998.Closing the gap between research and practice: An overview of systematic reviews of interventions to promote the implementation of research findings.” British Medical Journal 317(7156): 465-468.

Billings DL, Crane BB, Benson J et al. 2007. “Scaling-up a public health innovation: A comparative study of post-abortion care in Bolivia and Mexico,” Social Science & Medicine, 64:2210-2222.

Crewe, E. and J. Young. 2002. “Bridging Research and Policy: Context, Evidence and Links.” Overseas Development Institute Working Paper No. 173. London, England: Overseas Development Institute.

Davis, P. and P. Howden-Chapman. 1996. “Translating research findings into health policy.” Social Science and Medicine (43)5: 865-872.

Family Health International. 2003. Network: Research to Practice. Vol 23, No 1, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Haines A and Donald A. 1998. "Getting Research Findings into Practice: Using Research Findings in Clinical Practice". BMJ: 317:339-342 (1 August).

Hanson K, Cleary S, Schneider H et al. 2010. “Scaling up health policies and services in low-and middle-income settings,” BMC Health Services Research, 10(Suppl 1):11

Hunt, S.M. 1993. “The relationship between research and policy: Translating knowledge into action.” In Healthy Cities: Research and Practice. Eds. John Davies and Michael Kelly. London, England: Routledge.

Ir P, Bigdeli M, Meessen B et al. 2010. "Translating knowledge into policy and action to promote health equity: The Health Equity Fund policy process in Cambodia 2000-2008". Health Policy, 96: 200-209.

Marin, M.C., Gage, A., Khan, S. 2004.Frontiers in Reproductive Health Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Final Report, December, 2004.

Nutbeam, N. 1996. “Achieving ‘best practice’ in health promotion: Improving the fit between research and practice.” Health Education Research 11(3): 317-326.

Orosz, E. 1994.The impact of social science research on health policy.” Social Science and Medicine 39(9): 1287-93.

Pérez D, Lefevre P, Castro M et al. 2011. “Process-oriented fidelity research assists in evaluation, adjustment and scaling-up of community-based interventions,” Health Policy and Planning, 26: 413–422.

Population Council. Undated but estimated 2008. "Maximizing utilization of research". FRONTIERS in Reproductive Health Legacy Series.

Porter, R.W. and S. Prysor-Jones. 1997. “Making a Difference to Policies and Programs: A Guide for Researchers.” Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA Project), Academy for Educational Development, Washington DC: SARA.

Pronovost P, Berenholtz S, Needham D. 2008. "Translating evidence into practice: a model for large scale knowledge translation". BMJ, 337:a1714:963-965.

Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) website

Shelton JD. 2014. “Evidence-based public health: not only whether it works, but how it can be made to work practicably at scale.” Global Health Science and Practice 2(3) 253-257.

Stone, D., S. Maxwell, and M. Keating. 2001.Bridging Research and Policy.” Background paper for International Workshop Bridging Research and Policy, Warwick University, England, 16-17 July. England: Overseas Development Institute.

Syed S, Hyder A, Bloom G, et al. 2008. "Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: A case study from six countries". Health Research Policy and Systems, 6:4 doi:10.1186/1478-4505-6-4.

Walley J, Khan MA, Shah SK, Witter S, Xiaolin W. 2007. "How to get research into practice: first get practice into research". Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85 (6):424-5.

World Health Organization. 2006. "Bridging the 'Know-Do' Gap". Meeting on Knowledge Translation in Global Health, 10-12 October, 2005, Geneva, Switzerland.

World Health Organization. 2006. "Turning Research into Practice". suggested actions from case-studies of sexual and reproductive health research.

Yamey G. 2012. "What are the barriers to scaling up health interventions in low and middle income countries? A qualitative study of academic leaders in implementation science," Globalization and Health, 8:11.



Awoonor-Williams JK, Feinglass ES, Tobey R, Vaughan-Smith MN, Nyonator FK, Jones TC. 2004. "Bridging the Gap Between Evidence-based Innovation and National Health-sector Reform in Ghana" Studies in Family Planning 35 (3), 161–177.

Bajpai N and Dholakia RH. 2006. "Scaling Up Primary Health Services in Rural Rajasthan: Public Investment Requirements and Policy Reform" CGSD Working Paper No. 32. Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development, The Earth Institute at Columbia University.

Bennett, S & Paterson, M. 2003. "Piloting Health System Reforms: A Review of Experience." Technical Report No. 019. Bethesda, MD: The Partners for Health Reformplus Project, Abt Associates Inc.

Chopra, M. and Ford, N. 2005. "Scaling up health promotion interventions in the era of HIV/AIDS: challenges for a rights based approach". Oxford University Press: Health Promotion International, Vol 20, No. 4.

Colombini M, Mayhew SH, Ali SH et al.  2012.An integrated health sector response to violence against women in Malaysia: lessons for supporting scale up,” BMC Public Health, 12:548-557.

CORE. 2005. "Scale' and 'Scaling-Up'" A CORE Group Background Paper on Scaling-Up Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Services", July 11, 2005.

Gillespie D, Karklins S, Creanga A, Khan S, Cho NH. "Scaling Up Health Technologies: Report and Bibliography" 2007. The Bill and Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Global Health Workforce Alliance/World Health Organization. 2008. "Scaling up, Saving Lives". Task Force for Scaling Up Education and Training for Health Workers.

Huicho, L. , Davila M., Campos M., Drasbek C., Bryce J., and Victora CG. 2005. "Scaling up Integrated Management of Childhood Illness to the national level: achievements and challenges in Peru". Health Policy and Planning, 20: 14-24.

Kirk, E., Standing H. 2005. "Institutional issues in scaling up programmes for meeting the health related needs of the very poor." Institute of Development Studies,
University of Sussex, UK.

Knippenberg, R. et al. 2005. "Neonatal Survival 3: Systematic Scaling Up of Neonatal Care in Countries". The Lancet, Vol. 365, No. 9464, pg. 1087.

Lippeveld T. 2007. “Scaling up key public health interventions.” Boston, MA, John Snow, Inc.

Lovell, C. and F.H. Abed. 1993. “Scaling-up in health: Two decades of learning in Bangladesh.” In Reaching Health for All. Eds. Jon Rohde, Meera Chatterjee, David Morley, and Stephen Marazzi. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.

Management Sciences for Health (MSH). 2008. The Leadership, Management and Sustainability (LMS) Program website.

Mansour M, Mansour JB, El Swesy AH. 2010. "Scaling up proven public health interventions through a locally owned and sustained leadership development programme in rural Upper Egypt". Human Resources for Health, 8:1

Marchione TJ, Ed. 1999. “Scaling up, scaling down: overcoming malnutrition in developing countries.” Australia: Gordon and Breach.

Mills A and K Hanson, Eds. 2003. Expanding Access to Health Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Constraints and Opportunities for Scaling-Up. Journal of International Development Special Issue: Vol 15(1), Pages 1 - 131.

Myers, R.G. 1992. The Twelve Who Survive: Strengthening Programmes of Early Childhood Development in the Third World. London, England: UNESCO/Routledge.

Nakimuli-Mpungu E,  Alderman S, Kinyanda E et al "Implementation and scale-up of psycho-trauma centers in a post-conflict area: a case study of a private-public partnership in Northern Uganda,” PLoS Medicine 10 (4): e1001427.

Nyonator FK., Awoonor-Williams JK., Phillips JF., Jones TC, and Robert A Miller RA. 2005. "The Ghana Community-based Health Planning and Services Initiative for scaling up service delivery innovation" Health Policy and Planning, 20: 25-34.

Pelletier D, Corsi A, Hoey L, Houston R, Faillace S. 2010. "Program Assessment Guide". A2Z Project, AED, Washington, DC.

Pelletier D, Houston R, Faillace S. 2010. "Program Documentation Guide". A2Z Project, AED, Washington DC.

Petersen S. 2010. "Assessing the scale up of child survival interventions." The Lancet Volume 375, Issue 9714, Pages 530 - 531.

Phillips, J., R. Simmons, G. Simmons, and M. Yunus. 1984. “Transferring health and family planning services innovations to the public sector: An experiment in organization development in Bangladesh.” Studies in Family Planning 15(2): 62-73.

Pokhrel, S. 2006. "Scaling up health interventions in resource-poor countries: what role does research in stated-preference framework play?" Health Research Policy and Systems: Mar 30;4:4.

Poletti, T. et al. 2007. "The Desirability and Feasibility of Scaling Up Community Health Insurance in Low-Income Settings - Lessons From Armenia". Social Science & Medicine, Vol 64, pp.509-520..

Shiffman J. 2007. "Generating Political Priority for Public Health Causes in Developing Countries: Implications From a Study on Maternal Mortality". Center for Global Development Brief.

Snetro-Plewman G, Tapia M, Uccelani V, Brasington A, McNulty M. 2007. "Taking community empowerment to scale—Lessons from three successful experiences". (Health Communication Insights.) Baltimore: Health Communication Partnership based at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs.

Uvin P. and D. Miller. 1994. "Scaling up: Thinking through the issues". The World Hunger Program.

Uvin P. and D. Miller. 1996. “Paths to scaling-up: Alternative strategies for local nongovernmental organizations.” Human Organization 55(3): 344-354.

Uvin, P. 1996. “Scaling up the grassroots and scaling down the summit: the relations between third world NGOs and the UN.” In NGOs, the UN, and Global Governance. Eds. Thomas G. Weiss and Leon Gordenker. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, Inc.

Uvin, P. 1999. “Eliminating hunger after the end of the Cold War: Progress and constraints.” In Scaling Up, Scaling Down - Overcoming Malnutrition in Developing Countries. Ed. Thomas J. Marchione. Australia: Gordon and Breach.

Ved, R. 2009. "Scaling-up ICDS: Can Universalisation Address Persistent Malnutrition?". IDS Bulletin Volume 40(4):53-59.

Victora CG,  Barros FC, Assuncao MC et al. 2012. "Scaling up maternal nutrition programs to improve birth outcomes: a review of implementation issues," Food & Nutrition Bulletin, 33( Suppl 1): S6-26.

Wazir, R. and N. van Oudenhoven. 1998. “Increasing the coverage of social programmes.” International Social Science Journal 50(155): 145-154.

World Health Organization. 2005. "Estimating the Cost of Scaling-up Maternal
and Newborn Health Interventions to Reach Universal Coverage: methodology and assumptions
. Technical Working Paper.


Bennet S, Boerma JT, and Brugha R. 2006. "Scaling up HIV/AIDS evaluation". The Lancet, Vol 367: 79-82.

Biesma R, Brugha R, Harmer A. 2009. "The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control". Health Policy and Planning 2009 24(4):239-252;

Binswanger, H.P. 2000. Scaling up HIV/AIDS Programs to National Coverage. Science, New Series, Vol 288, No. 5474. pp. 2173-2176.

Brugha R, Simbaya J, Walsh A et al.  2010. “How HIV/AIDS scale-up has impacted on non- HIV priority services in Zambia,” BMC Public Health, 10:540.

Causey P. 2008. "Scaling up HIV programming for men who have sex
with men - the experience in Asia and the Pacific"
A report to the Global Forum on MSM & HIV. Asia Pacific Coalition on Male Sexual Health. Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations.

Cleary SM. 2010. "Commentary: Trade-offs in scaling up HIV treatment in South Africa". Health Policy and Planning 2010 25(2):99-101.

DeJong, J. 2001. “A question of scale? The challenge of increasing the scale of non-governmental organisations’ HIV/AIDS efforts in developing countries.” Horizons/Alliance Project on Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Programmes. Washington D.C.: Population Council.

DeJong, J. 2003. Making an Impact in HIV and AIDS: NGO Experiences of Scaling Up. London, England: Intermediate Technology Development Group Publishing.

Fitzgerald J, Dahl-Regis M, Gomez P, Del Riego A. 2005. "A Multidisciplinary Approach to Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care: The Experience of the Bahamas." Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 17, 66-72.

Global HIV Prevention Working Group. 2007. "Bringing HIV Prevention to Scale:
An Urgent Global Priority"

Hanefeld J, Musheke M. 2009. "What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia". Human Resources for Health, 7:8.

Harries AD, Makombe SD, Libamba E et al. 2011. “Why did the scale-up of HIV treatment work? A case example from Malawi,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: 57(Suppl.2): S64–7.

Harries, A., E. Schouten, et al. (2006). "Scaling up antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings." Lancet 367(9525): 1870-1872.

Helfenbein S and CA Severo. 2004. "Scaling up HIV/AIDS Programs: A manual for multisectoral planning". Management Sciences for Health.

Horizons Program, YRG CARE, and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance. 2004. "Expanding Care and Support in South India: Scaling Up YRG CARE’s Patient-Centered Approach,” Horizons Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Population Council.

Kober, K., Van Damme, W. 2004. "Scaling Up Access to Antiretroviral treatment in Southern Africa: Who Will Do the Job?" The Lancet, Vol 364, No. 9428, p 103.

Lowrance DW, Makombe SD,  Harries AD,  et al. 2008. “A Public Health Approach to Rapid Scale-Up of Antiretroviral Treatment in Malawi During 2004-2006”. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 3:287-293.

Management Sciences for Health (MSH). 2004. Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Programs. USA Agency for International Development (USAID).

Nsutebu, E.F., Walley, J.D., Mataka, E., and Simon, C.F. 2001. "Scaling-up HIV/AIDS and TB home-based care: lessons from Zambia". Health Policy and Planning; 16(3): 240-247.

Phillips, J., F. Nyonator, Barkat-e-Khuda, R. Miller, T.C. Jones, and S. Ravikumar. 2002. “Utilizing Field Experiments for Evidence-Based Health Program Development in Bangladesh and Ghana: Implications for HIV/AIDS Programs in resource constrained settings.” Paper presented at Global Conference on HIV/AIDS, Barcelona, Spain, July.

Phiri S, Foster G, Nzima M. "Expanding and strengthening community action: A study to explore ways to scale up effective, sustainable community mobilization interventions to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on children and families". Washington: Displaced Children and Orphans Fund of USAID, 2001.

Rasschaert F, Philips M, Leemput V et al. 2011. “Tackling health workforce shortages during antiretroviral treatment scale-up—Experiences from Ethiopia and Malawi, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 57(Suppl 2): S109–12.

Renju J, Andrew B, Nyalali K et al. 2010. “A process evaluation of the scale up of a youth-friendly health services initiative in northern Tanzania.Journal of the International AIDS Society, 13:32.

Safe Youth Worldwide. 2005. "Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programs for Youth: The Essential Elements Framework in Action". New York: Margaret Sanger Center International.

Schneider H, Coetzee D, Van Rensburg D et al. 2010. “Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: The role of implementation management.” BMC Health Services Research, 10(Suppl 1):S4.

Scott VE, Chopra M, Conrad L et al. 2005. “How equitable is the scaling up of HIV service provision in South Africa?” South African Medical Journal, 95(2): 109-13.

Sgaier SK, Ramakrishnan A, Dhhingra N et al. 2013. “How the Avahan HIV Prevention Program transitioned from the Gates Foundation to the Government of India.Health Affairs, 32: 1265-73.

Stephens, D. 2006. "Stigma, Scale-up, and Treatment Governance: Stumbling Block or Window of Opportunity?" United States Agency for International Development.

Van Damme W, Kober K, Kegels G. 2008. "Scaling-up antiretroviral treatment in Southern African countries with human resource shortage: How will health systems adapt?" Social Science & Medicine, 66: 2108-2121.

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